Botanical Name: Lomatium dissectum

Other Names: Biscuit Root, Fern-leafed Lomatium, Desert Parsley, Indian Parsnip, Cough Root, Indian Balsam, Caluks, Doza, Tohza

Properties: Mildly resinous. Tastes a little like celery.


  • Furanocoumarins
  • Flavonoids
  • Ichthyotoxic tetronic acids


  • Analgesic
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal
  • Antimicrobial
  • Antiseptic
  • Antispasmodic
  • Antiviral
  • Expectorant
  • Immunostimulant
  • Mucus Membrane Tonic
  • Phytotoxic
  • Stomachic
  • Tonic


  • Asthma
  • Bacterial infection
  • Bronchitis
  • Candida overgrowth
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Colds
  • Cough
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection
  • Dermatological infections
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
  • Gastrointestinal tract infection
  • Gingivitis
  • Herpes simplex virus
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Impetigo (School Sores)
  • Influenza
  • Periodontal disease
  • Pneumonia
  • Respiratory tract infection
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
  • Shigellosis
  • Sinusitis
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Vaginitis (Bacterial)
  • Viral encephalitis
  • Warts (topical)

Safety & Contraindications:

Avoid in pregnancy and lactation due to lack of safety data.

Theoretical interaction with anticoagulant medications.


15 – 40 mL weekly 1:2 LE



Botanical name: Isodon rubescens

Botanical Family: Lamiaceae

Part Used: Aerial part of plant

Other Names: Chinese sage bush, Shan Xiang Can, Liu You Ling, Dong Ling Cao

Properties: Slightly cold, sweet but bitter to taste


  • Diterpenoids – i.e. ponicidin and oridonin
  • Triterpenoids – i.e. oleanoilic acid, ursolic acid
  • Flavonoids
  • Phenolic acids
  • Volatile oils


  • Antibacterial
  • Anti-cancer
  • Anti-tumour
  • Immunomodulator
  • Digestive
  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-inflammatory


  • Bacterial infections – Gram + (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus)
  • Cancer treatment adjunct and chemoprevention
  • Cough
  • Gingivitis
  • Pharyngitis
  • Sore throat
  • Tonsillitis
  • Stomach pains

Dose: 30 mL to 70 mL week 1:2 LE


Rabdosia is considered to be a safe herbal medicine, according to the scientific literature.

Safety in Pregnancy and Lactation:

Safety in pregnancy and lactation has not been established, therefore use is not recommended.

Source: Optimal Rx Clinical Spotlight September 2019



Although this New zealand herbal medicine PoSSESSES Anti-microbial properties, Just like Mauka honey, the liquid extract of manuka is made using the aerial pLant parts and, therefore, exhibits many other properties and uses.

Latin Binomial: Leptospermum scoparium

Part Used: Aerial parts

Weekly Dose: 20 – 60 mL per week (1:2)


  • flavonoids
  • triterpene acids – unsolicited acid acetate
  • tannins e.g. ellagic acid
  • volatile oils


  • Anti-bacterial (via bactericidal activity and growth inhibition)
  • Anti-fungal
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-ulcer
  • Astringent
  • Anxiolytic (larger doses)
  • Spasmolytic
  • Mucus membrane tonic

A herb with anti-microbial properties with mucus membrane tonic action. It’s anti-microbial action is strong & broad acting) and is especially useful against gram positive bacteria. Manuka is also useful for any GIT disturbance that has a spasmodic quality or involvement with the nervous system – i.e. IBS


  • Gastrointestinal: colic, IBS, peptic ulcers, gingivitis, GIT infections, dyspepsia, infectious diarrhoea
  • Respiratory: Laryngitis, tonsilitis, sinusitis, URTI, oral thrush
  • Immune: Infections – bacterial & fungal. Fever, colds i.e. any infection involving mucus membranes, UTI (urinary tract infections)
  • Skin: Fungal infections (topical + internally), ulcers (topical), poor healing wounds (topical), tinea, thrush, cold sores
  • Anxiety
  • Dysmenorrhoea (spasmodic)
  • Spasmodic bladder conditions


  • Enterococcus spp.
  • Staphylcoccus spp. (incl. MRSA)
  • Streptococcus spp.
  • Listeria monocytogenes


  • Salmonella typhimurium
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Shigella spp.
  • Escherichia coli


  • Aspergillus niger
  • Aspergillus ochraceus
  • Candida albicans
  • Candida tropicalis
  • Fusarium culmorum
  • Malassezia furfur
  • Trichosporan mucoides
  • Trichophyton spp.


Prescribe as a mouthwash for gingivitis or mouth ulcers with myrrh, calendula or marshmallow

Cold sore topical preparation with Lemon Balm

NOTE: Makes a good alternative to Golden Seal – with it’s mucus membrane tonic action.




A herb native to Zew Zealand. A popular Maori remedy that was used to treat oral thrush and parasitic infection – such as ringworm.

Latin Binomial: Pseudowintera colorata

Part Used: Leaf

Weekly Dose: 10 – 30 mL of 1:2

Properties: Hot & Peppery


  • Analgesic
  • Antiallergy
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Astringent
  • Circulatory stimulant
  • Gastroprotective
  • Insecticidal
  • Nutritive
  • Rubefacient
  • Antioxidant

Pronounced effect as an anti fungal  on the GI system, respiratory system, genitourinary tract and the skin (topically).


  • Parasitic infection
  • Candida
  • Thrush – oral/systemic
  • Fungal skin conditions
  • Stomach pain
  • Diarrhoea
  • Respiratory tract conditions – e.g. coughs/colds/asthma
  • Arterial insufficiency
  • Chilblains, intermittent claudication, Raynaud’s syndrome
  • Topically for muscle/joint inflammation
  • Toothache

Can be used as an insect repellent.


  • Gram positive: Bacillus subtilis, Staphlycoccus aureuso
  • Gram negative: Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Salmonella choleraesuis


Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida lipolytica, Candida tropicalis, Candida utilis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Penicillium marneffei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichophyton mentgraphytes, Trichophyton rubrum

Safety & Interactions:

Avoid use in pregnancy due to safety not being established.

Avoid large doses in cases of gastric ulcers or acute gastritis.


Prescribe internally & externally for fungal infections

Combine with Holy Basil & Echinacea in candida infections 




Fumaria Officinalis illustration

Primarily used for colic of the upper digestive tract & gallbladder.


Common Name: Fumitory

Botanical Name: Fumaria officinalis

Dose: 15 – 40 mL 1:2 weekly

Part Used: Aerial Parts


  • Protopine is the main alkaloid


  • Cholagugue
  • Amphicholeretic (it can increase or decrease bile flow activity – modulates)
  • Spasmolytic
  • Potential anti-bacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms, Bacillus anthracis
    and Staphylococcus

Secondary actions:

  • Alterative 
  • Laxative
  • Digestive tonic


  • Gallbladder colic
  • Dysregulation of the gallbladder
  • Dysregulation of smooth muscle sphincters
  • Biliary colic
  • Reflux 
  • Liver insufficiency 
  • Has been used as a cream for topical application in conjunctivitis according to the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (BHP)

Eczema – and management of other chronic skin disorders. The juice of the plant was used for these uses.


Use as a simple for biliary colic – take as needed in drop dose. 

Combine with other chol/chols – such as Turmeric, Barberry, Oregon Grape, Danelion root, St. Mary’s thistle and Blue flag.

Good safety profile – can be used long term


Wood, M. The book of herbal wisdom.

Babaeimarzangou, S.S., Aghajanshakeri, S., Anousheh, D. & Mikaili, P.

(2015). Ethno-botanical, Bioactivities and Medicinal Mysteries of Fumaria officinalis (Common Fumitory). J Pharm Biomed Sci | Vol. 05 No. 11 | 857–862

Bradley PR editor. British Herbal Compendium. Fumitory – Fumariae
herba. Bournemouth: British Herbal Medicine Association; 1992.
pp. 102–4



Bitter Melon

“Bitter Melon”

Bitter Melon illustration

Common Name: Bitter Melon

Botanical Name: Momordica charatia


Part Used: Fruit

Key Actions:

  • Andi-diabetic
  • Anti-obesity
  • Hypocholesterolaemia
  • Antibacterial
  • Anti-cancer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Antiparasitic
  • Anti-ulcer
  • Anti-viral
  • Emmenagogue
  • Immunomodulator
  • Vulnerary


  • Diabetes
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Atherosclerosis prevention
  • Diabetic complications
  • Dyslipidaemia
  • Obesity

Preserves and protects pancreatic beta cells

Can prevent against many diabetic complications

Secondary Indications:

  • Bacterial infections
    • gram positive bacteria & gram negative
  • CancerTx adjunct
  • Fungal infectons – esp candida
  • Gastric Ulcer prevention
  • Hepatic steatosis
  • Parasitic infections
  • Psoriasis
  • Viral infections
  • Worms (traditionally)
  • Wound healing – topically

EXTREMELY BITTER TASTING LIQUID — Combine with cinnamon liquid extract and nigella.


Information obtained from Optimal Rx Herbal Dispensary update webinar and tech sheet.

Blessed Thistle

“Blessed Thistle”


Traditionally used as a bitter tonic to stimulate digestion and enhance appetite. This herb is included in Essiac tea.

Historically, this herb has been used as a ‘cure’ for the plague and malaria – a ‘cure-all’ tonic herb. 

Local to Mediterranean areas in Southern Europe. 

Botanical Name: Cnicus benedictus

Common Name: Blessed Thistle, bitter thistle, holy thistle, St. Benedict thistle

Family: Compositae. Asteraceae

Part Used: Aerial Parts – leafs, flowers and seeds


  • Sesquiterpenen lactone glycosides
    • cnicin (bitter)
    • salonitenolide
    • absinthin
  • Triterpenoids
    • a-amyrenone
    • a-amyrin acetate
    • a-amyrine
    • multiflorenol acetate
  • Lignans
    • trachelogenin, artigenin
    • nortacheloside
  • Flavonoids & polyenes
    • Tannins
  • Essential & volatile oils
    • p-cymene
    • fenchon
    • citral 
    • cinnamaldehyde


  • Mild diuretic
  • Appetite stimulant
  • Digestive tonic
  • Gastric Stimulant
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Anti-viral — Blessed thistle exhibited no antiviral activity against herpes, influenza or polio viruses in vitro. Lignans found in blessed thistle are under investigation as anti-HIV agents
  • Anti-pyretic
  • Diaphoretic
  • Emmenagogue (trad.)
  • Anti-tumor — Cnicin and arctigenin exhibited cytotoxic activity against some tumor cell lines including leukemia (HL-60), hepatomas and sarcomas. Arctigenin also induced differentiation in mouse myeloid leukemia cell lines.


Cnicin and the essential oil of blessed thistle were mildly antibacterialin vitro against Bacillus subtilis, Brucella species, Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Psedomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis; other studies demonstrated no activity against Klebsiella, Pseudemonas, S. aureus, S.tyhpi, or yeast



  • TRADITIONAL: Dysmennorhoea
  • Dyspepsia
  • Reduced appetite
  • Flatulence
  • Bloating
  • Indigestion

Safety – Cautions & Contraindications:

Avoid in pregnancy & lactation due to traditional use as an emmenagogue.


1:1 PPC Fresh Tincture

30 drops t.d.s. (before meals as gastric stimulant)


Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinkmann J, editors. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.


Kemper, K.J. (1999)/ Blessed Thistle Monograph. Centre for Holistic Paediatric Education & Research